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What is War?

Organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction

Types of War

  • Cold                              --> war without the invasion
  • War of independence   --> War to be free of a controlling country
  • Civil war                        --> a country where factions in the country have gone to war with each other.
  • Invasion                        --> a war where one attacks another
  • Proxy war                     --> a war where some players use another country to fight for them
  • Religious war               --> a war that does not necessarily have to respect national borders. (Type of fault line war)
  • Undeclared war            --> is this legal?
  • Total war                      --> war where civilians are targets


Is it ok to go on an offensive war?
Is it legal to go to war, if undeclared?
Is it ok to harm civilians in a war?


English civil war 1264. In May 1264 Montfort won a stunning victory at the battle of Lewes, where both King Henry and his heir, the future Edward I, were taken prisoner. Montfort lacked authority as the country's effective ruler as well as support from the baronage, so needed the backing of as wide a section of society as possible.
The January Parliament, which first met on 20 January 1265, The election of two knights from every shire and two burgesses from the towns helped establish the two-member county constituencies that endured until the 20th Century. At the January Parliament of 1265, however, both the counties and boroughs were to be represented, and the parliament was concerned with the wider business of the realm, not just taxation.
Montfort, who called the January Parliament, was the leader of a political faction that sought major reform of the realm. Fed up with Henry's misrule, as they saw it, these barons had confronted the King and, at a parliament in Oxford in 1258, forced him to adhere to a radical programme of reform. This resulted in an appointed council sharing power with the monarch.

These reforms were enshrined in the Provisions of Oxford, which for the first time defined the role of parliament in government.

A seemingly obscure civil war had led to the creation of a parliament.

Link between war and deficits

Cost of war



Link668Civil war