Parties v's voters
The aims of political parties and individual electors are diametrically opposed. All political parties want more government (because it will give them more power) when what the people want and need is less government (and more freedom).
-- Vernon Coleman
What is the point of politicians and parties
The philosophical model
Surely a political party should represent a specific political philosophy and its purpose should be to persuade the public that its model of the world is correct and that the policies that result are beneficial. A party that is prepared to adapt its political standpoint to gain votes is little more than a faction or bloc whose sole purpose is to gain power to benefit its members and followers.
The managerial model
Politicians are there to manage things, so what is needed are good managers, the object is to vote in those who can manage the country best. Vote them out when they have screwed up too much.
The representative model
Politicians are there to represent the public's wishes, and the ones that are the best caretakers of that should be voted in to make the system as democratic as possible.
The two party system
Problem with the two party system is that two evenly matched parties are encouraged to compete for votes by outdoing each others electoral promises. This amounts to irresponsible party government, in that parties come to power on the basis of election manifestos that they have no capacity to fulfil.
Disillusionment and cynicism grow as parties seek power by proclaiming their capacity to solve problems and improve conditions.
Whig is an abbreviation of Whiggamore, the name given to those Scottish Covenanters who opposed reaching an accommodation with King Charles. Whiggamore is thought to come from a Scots word meaning “drover of mares”—and thus, by implication, country bumpkin. Tory comes from the Irish tóraidhe, meaning “pursued man” or, more colloquially, “outlaw.” The original Tories were the defeated Irish Catholics who, dispossessed of their lands, hunted and hungry, kept up a guerrilla war from the islets of the western boglands through the 1650s.
-- Daniel Hannan