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Some countries, you need a permit to leave
Cuba has had exit permits.
  • The process to Leave was lengthy and expensive
  • Some people especially those politically not popular were denied a permit.
  • Applying for one was looked at suspiciously
  • There were limits on how long you could travel for
  • Certain essential professions can be restricted
  • "Public interest" however it is defined on the day may stop approval.
Despite all this 100's of thousands still migrated illegally.

In extreme cases people are considered human capital, where the country has invested money in the citizen and wishes to recuperate its investment.

History of passports
  • First introduced during the reign of Henry V in the form of a "safe conduct", passports were granted from at least 1540
  • One of the earliest still in existence was issued on 18 June 1641 and signed by Charles I
  • A passport photograph became a requirement in 1914, upon the outbreak of World War One
  • The familiar blue British passport came into use in 1921, with the last expiring in 2003
  • The first burgundy, machine-readable, UK passports were issued in Glasgow, in September 1988

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